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Drug use prevalence:
The treatment demand indicator estimates the number and the characteristics of people who seek medical treatment for drug use, as well as gives perspectives on drugs being used and the provided treatment. The estimation is based on the Common Protocol of the Demand for Treatment Indicator of the Pompidou Group – EMCDDA, accepted in the entire European space. The utilization of a single protocol is based on informational necessities, data availability and feasibility and comparability insurance. This protocol describes the routine data collection system (20 variables) for each patient beginning the treatment. This offers the treatment centres classification, defines the groups of patients who have to be registered, and provides guidelines on techniques used in data collection, processing and reporting. The general information obtained after the estimation of this indicator identifies the particularities of profile services’ utilization, assesses the need for resources, contributes to the planning and evaluation of services provided to drug users. Given that the drug phenomenon and the characteristics of drug users change over time, this document is reviewed every five years (EMCDDA, 2000). Currently, the National Narcology Service only partly follows the provisions of the abovementioned protocol, but this is planned to standardize variables collection and indicators calculation process in the future.
Problem drug use
According to the EMCDDA definition, the problem drug use is defined as the injecting drug use and/or a long term/regular utilization of opiate, cocaine and/or amphetamine/methamphetamine - type drug(s). The biggest drug-related problems in European Union are caused by heroin and other opiates use. The substances causing health and social problems, as well as the ways of drug administration vary from country to country. Taking these facts under consideration, it was decided to refer to all categories of problems generated by opiates, cocaine and amphetamines use, independently of the way of their administration as to problematic drug use. It is important that each country has a definition adjusted to international requirements and this is one of the future tasks of the Republic of Moldova. In this context one should take into account the country profile regarding the type of used and trafficked drugs.
The epidemiological indicator for drug use-related infectious disease serves in determining the level of their spreading and the health consequences of drug use. The use of a single methodology ensures the comparability between countries and allows an analysis of phenomenon trends at the regional and European level. The infectious diseases covered by this indicator are: HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis B, C, and
The broad definition of mortality caused by drug abuse includes the cases of long term drug abuse resulting in overdose, suicides as a result of despair caused by life circumstances or by the effects of the abstinence syndrome and fatal accidents under the influence of drugs. Details on this approach are presented in the EMCDDA Guidelines (EMCDDA, 2001). Different EU countries display different level of development in this indicator. Some countries, like Italy and the Netherlands report routinely only the cases of overdose; others – e.g. Germany apply the entire definition of this phenomenon (EMCDDA, 2002).
Drug related crimes
Legislation regarding drug abuse and drug trafficking
The Synthetic Table of the Permanent Drug Control Committee Provision regulating the quantities of illegally owned or trafficked drugs was developed based on the minutes no.1 of the Committee meeting of January 15, 1997. In December, 1998, following a plenary meeting, the Permanent Drug Control Committee approved the Tables and the List of narcotic and psychotropic substances which were under international control, according to the United Nations Conventions from 1961, 1971 and 1988. During the following years the tables and lists were modified according to the minutes of meetings no.7 from December 1, 1998, no.1 from January 5, 2000, and no.5 from December 4, 2000 of the Permanent Drug Control Committee and approved by the Decision no. 3 of the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control from December 6, 2002, “Regarding the modification of tables and lists of narcotic and psychotropic substances controlled by the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control”. Following the urgent need, the new modifications were described in the Decision no.7 of the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control from July 11, 2003, “Regarding the modification of tables and lists of narcotic and psychotropic substances” and in the Decision no. 1088 of the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control from May 5, 2004, “Regarding the approval of the tables and lists of narcotic and psychotropic substances and their precursors, controlled by the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control”.
The Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.382-XIV of May 6, 1999 stated the main objective to promote the state policies regarding the problem of circulation of narcotic, psychoactive substances and their precursors. Based on this law the competences of the following bodies were approved: the Permanent Committee for Drugs Control of the Ministry of Health and the Interdepartmental Commission for Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking Control, both representing the internal and the external interests of the Republic of Moldova on the problems of drug abuse and drug business control.
The executive process monitoring determined the modifications and additions to article 41 of the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.104-XV of May 13, 2003 “Regarding the modifications and completion of legislative documents”. This modification provides for the principal moments to be followed in the process of licensing a pharmaceutical activity involving narcotic and psychoactive substances and their precursors.
The Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.713-XV of December 6, 2001, “Regarding the control and prevention of excessive alcohol abuse, illicit use of drugs and other psychotropic substances”, expresses the Government’s policy orientation towards the creation of favourable environment to implement the ethical principles in the society, and to operationalize the strategies and actions regarding the eradication of drug abuse. Within the process of its implementation the law required some modifications and additions: the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.210-XV of May 29, 2003, stipulates the modification of article 20 of the Law of the Republic of Moldovanr.713-XV of December 6, 2001, “Regarding the control and prevention of excessive alcohol abuse, illicit use of drugs and other psychotropic substances”. The Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.394-XV of October, 16, 2003 stipulates the modification of the Law nr.1036-XIII of December 17, 1996 “Regarding the penitentiary system” and of the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.713-XV of December 6, 2001, “Regarding the control and prevention of excessive alcohol abuse, illicit use of drugs and other psychotropic substances”.
The Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.333-XV of July 24, 2003, “Regarding the modification of some legislative documents” provides for modifications of the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.845-XII of January 3, 1992 “Regarding entrepreneurship and enterprises, including license requirements for certain types of activities”, as well as for modifications of the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr. 1456-XII of May 25, 1993, “Regarding the pharmaceutical activity”, which provides for a licensing according to the existing legislation; modification to the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.451 – XV of July 30, 2001, “Regarding the process of licensing some types of activities”.
The Penal Code of the Republic of Moldova nr.985-XV of April 18, 2002 was modified through the Law of the Republic of Moldova nr.211-XV of May 29, 2003, “Regarding the modifications and completion of the Penal Code of the Republic of Moldova”.
According to this legislative document illegal possession of a bigger quantity of drugs is subject for penal punishment. The quantitative specification of drugs is regulated in the Synthetic Table as of January 15, 1997 of the Permanent Drug Control Committee Provision regarding the determination of a small or big quantity of illegally owned or trafficked drugs, as well as in its later modifications.
Drug consumption in the Republic of Moldova is decriminalized and is the subject of an administrative fine according to article 44 of the Administrative Contravention Code (ACC). The illegal sowing and cultivation of poppy or hemp is subject to administrative fee according to article 105 of the ACC.
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OBSERVATORUL NAŢIONAL PENTRU DRODURI